Login

GPC Members Login
If you have any problems or have forgotten your login please contact [email protected]


The secret lives of ancient land plants

The clues to our evolutionary ancestors? They're in our genes.

All organisms carry patterns in their DNA that scientists can analyze to decipher where and when a species diverged on the evolutionary tree. These studies can reveal how a particular species evolved to become the organism we know today.

In collaboration with over 40 universities and research institutes worldwide, Takayuki Kohchi and colleagues at Kyoto University have unraveled the genome of the common liverwort -- Marchantia polymorpha -- gaining new insight into how the modest land plants evolved. The results were published recently in the journal Cell.

"All land plants, from moss on rocks to trees that flower, evolved from a common ancestral algal species that colonized land about 500 million years ago," explains Kohchi. "The liverwort diverged from other land plants at the earliest stage of evolution, and therefore still possess ancestral characteristics of plant species that followed."

Liverworts have been used extensively in plant research since they were first studied in the late Middle Ages. In the past few years, Kohchi and his colleagues had developed various molecular and genetic techniques that opened the door to improved analysis, especially for the study of plant genetics.

Using these techniques, the team deciphered the liverwort's roughly 20,000 genes, discovering in part the low level of genetic redundancy that controls the plant's development and physiology.

"Flowering plants have redundant copies of vital genes in their DNA, so that if something goes wrong, there's a backup," continues Kohchi. "And while liverworts have the fundamental ancestral versions of basic mechanisms to keep plants alive, these are exceedingly simple."

Based on these findings, the scientific significance of the lowly liverwort is now unassailable: it is a key model plant for molecular and genetic studies, providing hints to future agricultural applications and plant breeding technologies.

"Now that we know the liverwort genome, we can begin to decipher the functions of each individual gene, and how these evolved in later plant species," concludes Kohchi.

Read the paper: Insights into Land Plant Evolution Garnered from the Marchantia polymorpha Genome.

Article source: Kyoto University.

Image credit: Kohchi Lab, Kyoto University

News

New study shows producers where and how to grow cellulosic biofuel crops

According to a recent ruling by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, 288 million gallons of cellulosic biofuel must be blended into the U.S. gasoline supply in 2018. Although this figure is down slightly from last year, the industry is still growing at a modest pace. However, until now, producers have had to rely on incomplete information and unrealistic, small-scale studies in guiding their decisions about which feedstocks to grow, and where. A new multi-institution report provides practical agronomic data for five cellulosic feedstocks, which could improve adoption and increase production across the country.


Europe's lost forests: Coverage has halved over 6,000 years

More than half of Europe's forests have disappeared over the past 6,000 years thanks to increasing demand for agricultural land and the use of wood as a source of fuel, new research led by the University of Plymouth suggests.


The circadian clock sets the pace of plant growth

The recent award of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to the three American researchers Hall, Rosbash and Young for their "discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm" has greatly popularized this term -which comes from the Latin words "circa" (around of) and "die" (day)-. Thanks to the discoveries that these scientists did using the fruit fly, today we know that the organisms have an internal clock built of a set of cellular proteins whose amount oscillates in periods of 24 hours. These oscillations, which are autonomously maintained, explain how living organisms adapt their biological rhythm so that it is synchronized with the Earth's revolutions.