Login

GPC Members Login
If you have any problems or have forgotten your login please contact [email protected]


Between the lines: Tree rings hold clues about a river's past

Hydrologists are looking centuries into the past to better understand an increasingly uncertain water future.

By analyzing centuries-old growth rings from trees in the Intermountain West, researchers at Utah State University are extracting data about monthly streamflow trends from periods long before the early 1900s when recorded observations began.

Their findings were published in the Journal of Hydrology and, for the first time, show that monthly streamflow data can be reconstructed from annual tree-ring chronologies -- some of which date back to the 1400s.

"By linking tree rings and flow during the past 100 years when we have recorded observations, we can use trees as a tool for measuring flow long before there were gauges on the rivers," said USU's Dr. James Stagge, a hydrologist and civil engineer who led the research. "Our study takes this one step further and uses different tree species and locations to reconstruct monthly flow, rather than annual flow."

Knowing monthly streamflow, the authors explain, is key to making better-informed decisions about water use and management. In Utah and around the world, populations in arid climates depend on seasonal and often inconsistent water supplies for agriculture and urban use.

"One data point per year gives a very limited picture," said co-author Dr. David Rosenberg, an associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at USU. "Decisions about water management happen much more frequently than just once per year. Water managers have to make decisions every month, every week, sometimes every day."

To fill in the missing monthly data, Stagge and co-authors built a model that reconstructs monthly streamflow for three rivers in Northern Utah. The reconstructions are available to the public at http://www.paleoflow.org and show monthly streamflows dating back to 1605 for the Logan River and as far back as 1400 for the Bear and Weber rivers.

The team used tree-ring chronologies from seven species selected from a range of locations and elevations. Stagge says different tree species at different elevations respond to the changing seasons at different times of the year and in slightly different ways, recording unique parts of the seasonal flow. The model overlaps the tree-ring chronologies and combines annual streamflow information and climate data to arrive at a monthly streamflow estimate.

"Now we can get down into a monthly scale and pick up seasonal patterns within the streamflow," said Stagge. "It's the seasonality that determines drought, how reservoirs fill, and when there are shortages. Now that we have this method, we can start looking at what major droughts over the past 600 years would mean for today's water supply."

Read the paper: Monthly paleostreamflow reconstruction from annual tree-ring chronologies.

Article source: Utah State University.

Image credit: Matt Jensen/USU

News

Plants prove to be efficient antifungal factories

Researchers of the Institute of Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology (IBMCP), a mixed centre of the Valencia Polytechnic University (UPV) and the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), in collaboration with the Centre of Agrigenomic Research (CRAG) of the CSIC, the government of Catalunya, the Authonomous University of Barcelona and the University of Barcelona; and the Institute of Food Agrochemistry and Technology (IATA) of the CSIC, have been able to efficiently produce antifungal proteins in plants, based on a modified tobacco mosaic virus. The results of this research, which could have a great impact in the agri-food industry, have been published in the Plant Biotechnology Journal.


Nuclear events make a flower bloom

Flowers do more than give plants beautiful lovely colors and fragrances. They are the reproductive organs of the plant. Their formation depends on strict nuclear events that if compromised can leave the plant sterile. A new study by researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) shows how two transcription factors, AGAMOUS and CRABS CLAW, bind sequentially to the gene YUC4, which is responsible for synthesizing the plant hormone auxin. The findings, which can be read in Nature Communications, provide an epigenetic explanation for proper formation of the gynoecium, the female reproductive organ of flowering plants.


Flower power with the family

For centuries, people have conveyed feelings of happiness and love with flowers. Now an EU research team has found that plants flower more when surrounded by relatives compared to when growing with strangers or alone.